There are more than one definition of foreign investors (nhà đầu tư nước ngoài) under Vietnamese law:
- Foreign investors are defined under the Investment Law to mean … “foreign organization or individual using capital in order to carry out an investment activity in Vietnam”. The definition under the Investment Law seems to suggest that only companies incorporated outside Vietnam can be regarded as foreign investors.
- However, in subsequent decisions of the Prime Minister (Decision 88/2009 and Decision 55/2009), foreign investors also include enterprises established in Vietnam with more than 49% of capital contributed by “foreign parties” (bên nước ngoài). It is not clear if the term “foreign parties” are the same as “foreign investors” in the Prime Minister’s decision.
- The Ministry of Finance on the other hand consider foreign investors to include “enterprises established in Vietnam with 100% foreign contributed capital”.
- The latest document (Decree 102/2001) does not provide a definition of foreign investors but provides that companies incorporated in Vietnam of which foreign investors own more than 49% will be subject to the same investment and business conditions as those applicable to foreign investors.
In summary, there are overlapping and confusing definitions of “foreign investors” under Vietnamese law. However, it is reasonable to conclude that such term will cover, among others, companies incorporated outside of Vietnam and companies incorporated in Vietnam of which foreign investors own more than 49%.
The following is a non-exhaustive list of licenses, permits and requirements on environment which an industrial park in Vietnam need to comply with.
1. Environment impact assessment report (EIAR – Báo cáo đánh giá tác động môi trường) or environment protection plan (EPP – Kế hoạch bảo vệ môi trường).
2. Confirmation on completion of the environmental protection works (Xác nhận hoàn thành công trình bảo vệ môi trường).
The following is a non-exhaustive list of licenses, permits and requirements on firefighting and prevention applicable for an industrial park in Vietnam which are subject to the monitor of firefighting and prevention and may pose a risk of fire and explosion.
1) Appraisal of firefighting and prevention design (Thẩm duyệt thiết kế về phòng cháy chữa cháy) by the competent authority before commencing the construction.
2) Acceptance of firefighting and prevention (Nghiệm thu về phòng cháy và chữa cháy) by the competent authority before putting the construction works into operation.
3) Compulsory fire and explosion insurance for the properties of the industrial park.
Foreign banks located outside of Vietnam extending cross-border loans to borrowers in Vietnam should be aware of the following:
Under WTO commitments, Vietnam gives an “unbound” commitment regarding cross-border lending services. The Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-pacific Partnership (CPTPP) also does not open for cross-border lending services. This means that the Vietnamese Government has discretion to allow or disallow cross-border lending;
On 11 January 2019, the Supreme Court issued Resolution 1 guiding the application of several regulations on interest, interest rate and relevant penalty (Resolution 1/2019). Resolution 1/2019 will take effect from 15 March 2019. Below are some salient points of Resolution 1/2019
Resolution 1/2019 clearly states that the interest rate caps of the Civil Code 2005 and 2015 will not apply to credit contracts between banks and its customers. In the past, there has been long debate regarding whether the interest rate caps of the Civil Code 2005 and 2015 will apply to credit contracts.
If the interest rate, overdue interest on principal and overdue interest on interest are higher than the permitted cap, the exceeding interest which has been paid will be deducted from the principal of the loan.