A new Circular on registration of mortgages and other secured transactions in Vietnam

On 20 June 2018, the Ministry of Justice issued Circular 8 on the registration and provision of information on security interest and contracts (Circular 8/2018). Circular 8/2018 will replace Circular 5/2011 on the same subject from 4 August 2018.

Name of the object of the registration

The object of registration under Circular 5/2011 is secured transactions (giao dịch bảo đảm), which is in line with the Civil Code 2005. However, the term “secured transaction” is almost removed from the Civil Code 2015 and the registration is now the registration of security interest (biện pháp bảo đảm). Circular 8/2018 adopts such approach and determined the object of registration is security interest to be consistent with the new Civil Code 2015.

UPSTREAM REGULATIONS IN VIETNAM – CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

In Vietnam, foreign and Vietnamese organizations and individuals carry out the petroleum operations based on a petroleum contract signed with Vietnam Oil and Gas Group (PVN) or other agreements signed with PVN or the Government of Vietnam in accordance with the Law on Petroleum 1993.

A petroleum contract can be a production sharing contract (PSC), joint venture agreement or other forms if approved by the Prime Minister. Unless otherwise approved by the Prime Minister, a PSC must comply with the model petroleum product sharing contract promulgated by the Government under Decree 33/2013.

PVN is entitled to participate in petroleum operations as an investor while concurrently has rights and power to manage contractors’ activities and, in some cases, is authorized to act on behalf of the Government in relationship with other investors under PSCs. This results in a material conflict of interests for PVN in acting as an investor under the PSC and as a regulator at the same time. Vietnamese law does not have a clear provision to control the conflict of interests where PVN participates in capital investment with other investors in petroleum operations and concurrently exercise rights and powers which should belongs to a State agency in relationship with such contractors under a PSC.

That said, in theory, the Competition Law 2015 may provide some restrictions on PVN’s authorities under the Law on Petroleum 1993. For example, when exercising the power conferred to it under the Law on Petroleum 1993,

·        if PVN is regarded as a State agency then the Law on Competition prohibits “State agency” to force enterprises, organizations, and individuals to purchase services or goods from enterprises as specified/selected by such State agency/State management agency; and

·        if PVN is regarded as an enterprise then PVN could be deemed to have significant market power (sức mạnh thị trường đáng kể) and is prohibited from abusing such power.

This post is contributed by Ha Thi Dung, a partner at Venture North Law.

Ownership of bank deposits in Vietnam

The core business of a bank (a Bank) is to take monies (Deposits) deposited by its customers (Depositors) and to lend such monies to its borrowers. Therefore, legally, it is important to determine who owns the Deposits. Unfortunately, Vietnamese banking law is not clear whether after the Depositors make a Deposit with the Bank, the Bank or the Deposit owns the Deposit.

The case for the Bank

The most logical conclusion is that:

·       the Bank is the owner of the Deposit;

·       the Depositor is not the owner of the Deposit, but the Depositor has a contractual right to request the Bank to return the Deposit to the Depositor in accordance with the terms of the Deposit; and

·       the borrower will own the Deposit after it borrows the same from the Bank.

Issues in selecting arbitration to settle construction disputes in Vietnam

Under the Law on Construction 2014, a dispute relating to a construction contract can be resolved through mediation, by a commercial arbitration or court “in accordance with law”. This standard wording seems to allow parties to a construction dispute in Vietnam to select arbitration to settle the dispute. However, Circular 26/2016 of the Ministry of Construction provides that a dispute relating to quality of a construction work will be resolved in the following steps: