The Securities Law prohibits the use of inside information to purchase or trade in shares of public companies. Failure to comply with the insider trading rules may result in administrative penalty and the transaction may be held invalid. The broad definition of inside information, in theory, may include certain information obtained by a potential strategic investor in the course of due diligence into a Public Joint Stock Company (Public JSC) in advance of a potential private acquisition. Therefore, theoretically, if a proposed strategic investment is predicated on the use of inside information relating to a Public JSC in the course of due diligence, the proposed investment might be subject to insider trading restrictions under the Securities Law. This may also give rise to insider trading liabilities for the relevant potential investor, who relies on non-public due diligence information to make an investment in a Public JSC.
The issue of selective disclosure in the context of a private acquisition in a Public JSC appears to have not been considered when the Securities Law was drafted. Thus, the restriction appears to be one of omission rather than a specific intention to prohibit or regulate. Unfortunately, a resolution of this issue, which will create an environment of greater regulatory certainty for potential strategic and institutional investors, will likely take many years in Vietnam.
That being said, the securities regulations allow certain “inside shareholders” in a Public JSC who have or are deemed to have inside information to trade shares in Public JSC provided that certain public disclosures are made before and after the proposed trade. It is not clear if potential investors in a Public JSC may make public disclosures in the same manner as an inside shareholders do to avoid potential insider trading liabilities.
A new Decree (Decree 108/2018) was issued on 23 August 2018 to provide various amendments to the existing business registration regulations under Decree 78/2015. Decree 108/2018 will take effect from 10 November 2018. Here are some notable changes:
Decree 108/2018 makes it clear, which is not in Decree 78/2018, that the following documents in the registration application are not required to have company stamp on them: enterprise registration application; notice of changes to enterprise registration; and decision, resolution, and meeting minutes.
A new Law on Cybersecurity (Luật an ninh mạng) (the CSL 2018) will come into effect from 1 January 2019 in Vietnam. Not only providing measures to secure the cyber-environment which to some extent has been regulated by the Law on Cyber-information Safety dated 19 November 2015, the CSL 2018 also includes various provisions to control the contents posted or published on the cyber-network. Below are some salient issues of the CSL 2018.
Scope of the CSL 2018
The CSL 2018 applies to all agencies, organizations and individuals involving in the protection of cybersecurity, which is broadly defined as the assurance that activities in cyberspace not causing harm to the national security, social order and safety, lawful rights and interests of agencies, organizations and individuals. In particular, the CSL 2018 will apply to overseas organisations, which have users residing in Vietnam such as Google or Facebook.
The CSL 2018 covers all networks of IT infrastructure, telecommunication, Internet, computer systems, databases, information processing, storage and controlling systems, and regulates activities of every enterprise providing services in cyberspace and Internet users including e-commerce, websites, online forums, social networking and blogs.
Operators of information system (Chủ quản hệ thống thông tin)
The CSL 2018 imposes various obligations on an operator of an information system. Under the Law on Cyber-information Safety according to which, an operators of information systems means any agencies, organizations or individuals having directly managing authority to an information system.
A new Law on Competition (Competition Law 2018) will take effect from 1 July 2019 in Vietnam. Some key changes in the Competition Law 2018 are as follows:
Broader scope of application: The Competition Law 2018 now governs any activities whether by Vietnamese or foreign entity or individual which have or may have the “competition restraining impact” to Vietnam market. Competition restraining impact means impact which excludes, reduces, distorts or hinders competition in the market. Under the Competition Law 2018, the competition authority of Vietnam now has clear authority to deal with offshore activities and transactions which has impact on Vietnam market. In addition, the Competition Law 2018 now also apply to public service units such as hospitals, or schools which are technically not enterprises.
Besides the principle of honesty, companies are required to compete with each other in accordance with the principles of justice and fairness.
Relationship with other laws: Contrary to the old competition law, the new Competition Law 2018 will not prevail other laws in case such other laws have regulations on action in restraints of competition, form of economic concentration, activities of and dealing with unfair competition.
Under the new Competition Law 2018, a State agency is prohibited not only from forcing but also from “requesting or recommending” enterprises or individuals or organisations to perform or not to produce and sell specific goods, provide and use specific service, or produce and sell goods to or provide and use services of specific enterprises.
Decree 71/2017 replaced Circular 121/2012 on corporate governance of public join-stock company (Public JSC) since 1 August 2017. Decree 71/2017 does not have its own criteria for being an independent director but refers to the criteria under the Enterprise Law 2014. The table below compares the old criteria of an independent director in a Public JSC with the new criteria under the Enterprise Law 2014. Although in some areas, the Enterprise Law 2014 provides stricter criteria, the Enterprise Law 2014 contains certain major omission (e.g., including omission to exclude managers of an affiliate or representatives or related persons of a major shareholder in a Public JSC from acting as an independent director of a Public JSC).
Under a recent announcement in Official Letter No. 4486/UBCK-GSDC dated 20 July 2018, the State Securities Commission of Vietnam (SSC) requires public companies, securities companies, asset management companies, and securities investment funds (quỹ đầu tư chứng khoán) (i) not to conduct any illegal offering, transaction or transaction brokerage relating to virtual money (tiền ảo) which should include cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and to (ii) adhere to the legal regulations on anti-money laundering.
The above official letter was based on Directive 10/CT-TTg of the Prime Minister dated 11 April 2018. Both of them once again confirm the view of Vietnamese government on virtual money that was stated by the State Bank of Vietnam in its press release dated 27 February 2014 about Bitcoin in Vietnam:
(a) virtual money is not currency; and
(b) virtual money is not a legal tender.
1. Where a member (the Conflicted Member) in a limited liability company with two or more members (the LLC) has an interest in a related-party transaction or contract (an RPT) with the Multi-Member LLC, the Enterprise Law 2014 requires the RPT to be approved by the Members’ Council (MC) of the LLC excluding the votes of the Conflicted Member. However, relating to the approval process, the Enterprise Law 2014 is not clear on the following issues:
1.1. whether the charter capital of the Conflicted Member should be excluded from the calculation of quorum of the MC’s meeting to approve the RPT? and
1.2. if the Conflicted Member is the chairman of the MC, whether the Conflicted Member can still preside over the MC’s meeting?